Extrapolation EU to world

Based on http://www.wolframalpha.com (checked March 29, 2019), hereby an extrapolation table demonstrating that the world is 5 to 15 times the EU. For markets that are based on demographics, a first approximation can be that the global long-term potential of a market is very roughly ’10 times EU’, or that EU represents 10% of the world market.

Region  Electricity
 EU  2,892 76  17.3  509
World 18,470 539 80.7  7,550
Multiplier 6.4 7.1 4.7 14.8


The energy transition is in progress!

Today, the energy transition is well in progress in the EU. Tens of GW of wind and solar PV capacity are added every year. Transmission grids are being extended. We’re investing in energy efficiency. Buildings are getting smarter. The transport fleet is electrifying. We have 11 million heat pumps in Europe. As a result, we estimate that the energy transition has already added well almost 2 million tonnes of copper in use, and is adding about 300 kilotonnes per year: Continue reading The energy transition is in progress!

Copper in electric motors

The European annual motor market (all motor sizes) is 15 M units with an average copper content of 5.3 kg/unit. Annual copper use in this market is 79 ktonnes. This figure is expected to increase because of 2 drivers:

  • Increased efficiency, which in general leads to higher copper use, leading to copper use of 6.5 kg/unit (~ 20% increase)
  • Growth in the market to 20 million units per year, due to motorisation following electrification.

Hence copper use in the future EU motor market can be expected to be 130,000 tonnes per year, an increase of more than 50 ktonnes from today. Over the period 2018-2050, this leads to a an additional use of 1.5 M tonnes (50 k * 30 years). Considering that the average motor lifetime is around 15 years, and that copper in motors has an almost full collection and recycling rate, the demand for primary copper is half this amount, i.e. 750 ktonnes.

New motor technologies could reduce this amount by half. Therefore, in the alternative technology scenario, we reduce this figure to 500 ktonnes.

Copper needed for the electrification to trucks

According to an ECI internal study, commissioned with Fraunhofer-i4e, the following demand for copper in truck due to electrification could be expected:


Segment Unit sales in 2025 % alternative Copper needs
Small trucks 2130 k 26-40% 66 ktons
Medium trucks 111 k 20% 5 ktons
Large trucks 405 k 10% 16 ktons
Total 2646 k 87 ktons

Extrapollating these figures to a hypothetical full conversion to electromobility yields:

Segment Copper needs Mutliplication factor Maximum copper needs
Small trucks 66 ktons 2.5 165 ktons
Medium trucks 5 ktons 5.0 25 ktons
Large trucks 16 ktons 10.0 160 ktons
Total 350 ktons

There are 13 million trucks on the EU’s roads (i.e. 5 times the annual market). The maximum copper needs to electrify 100% of the truck fleet is 350 * 5 = 1750 ktons.

In practice, alternatives to electrification of goods transport will also play their part. In addition, the sharing economy may lead to less consumption, more local consumption and hence less goods transport. A realistic scenario will reduce this figure at least by half, to 875 ktons.

Industrial electrification of heat

At present, the EU industry uses 150 Mtoe/year of fossil heat through oil, coal, gas. This is equivalent to 1,800 TWh/year. If this industrial heat demand is converted to electroheating technologies, around 750,000 industrial furnaces will be needed. This leads to a new copper demand of 1.5 Mtons. This is based on the following assumptions:

  1. One furnace requires about 1.2 GWh of electricity (e.g. 400 kW for 3000 hours).
  2. Switching to electricity reduces final energy consumption by a factor 2.
  3. 2 tons of copper per furnace for the furnace, its power supply and cabling.

It is highly unlikely that industry will convert from largely combustion technology to electric furnaces, even in a strongly carbon-constrained world. Green combustion using bioenergy or hydrogen will also play an important role. For the moment, we assume that electricity, bioenergy and combustion will play equal roles, leading to 250,000 furnaces and a copper demand of 500,000 tonnes.

Copper in busses & charging infrastructure for busses

According to [1], there are 1.63 busses per 1000 citizens in the EU, leading to 828,000 busses for EU’s 508 million citizens. This estimate is not far from DecarbEurope’s number [2].

According to [3], copper use in electric busses is over 350 kg/unit. We assume that 2 thirds of the copper content is due to electrification, i.e. 230 kg.

Considering CAPEX parity for electric buses well before 2050 [4], we can expect the fleet to fully electrify, leading to a copper demand of 190,000 tonnes.

Bus charging stations need 224 – 369 kg per unit, leading to another demand of 185,000 – 305,000 tonnes (average 245,000 tonnes).

Hence, the total copper demand to electrify the bus fleet is 435,000 tonnes.

  1. Vehicles in the EU (EEA)
  2. 893,000 busses in circulation (DecarbEurope)
  3. Electric vehicles & copper demand (Copper Alliance)
  4. Analysis of the potential for electric buses (Copper Alliance / VUB Mobi)
  5. EN-V mobility concept (General Motors)


Copper use in electric vehicles

According to [1] in the EU 2050 scenario, electric vehicles with require 11.6 million tons of copper in the period up to 2050.

Cf [2]. a European Union of 508 million citizens with 500 cars per thousand citizens owns a car fleet of 254 million cars (2015).

Cf [3-5], car sharing and autonomous driving are expected to reduce vehicles in use by 10-90%. This is a very wide range. We will assume a 50% reduction in car ownership compared to the 2015 level, i.e. 127 million cars.

Note that passenger-km with cars are still expected to increase 20% between 2015 and 2050 according to the EU reference scenario [6]. For the same mileage per car, this makes the above 50% assumption effectively a 70% reduction.

In addition, car sharing will mean a shorter lifetime for vehicles since the same number of km will be served by less cars. Under above assumptions, we can expect vehicle lifetime to significantly decrease and hence end-of-life recovery of materials in vehicles becomes increasingly important.

According to [7], the additional copper demand for PHEV and BEV compared to ICE vehicles is:

  • PHEV: ~40 kg
  • BEV: ~ 60 kg

We expect however the copper use in batteries to reduce by 25% over the coming decades which would reduce above figures by respectively 5 and 10 kg. Hence, the average additional copper use per plugged vehicle would be 42.5 kg.

This leads to a copper requirement of 127 M * 42.5 = 5.4 M tonnes.


  1. Copper requirements to build a near-100% renewable electricity system in Europe
  2. Vehicle ownership in the EU (EEA)
  3. Self-driving vehicles could cut the number of cars in use by as much as 90% (EEA)
  4. Self-driving vehicles could cut US auto sales by 40% (WE Forum)
  5. Vehicles in use to reduce by 10 – 30% (Frost & Sullivan)
  6. EU reference scenario 2016 (European Commission)
  7. Electric vehicles & copper demand (Copper Alliance)

Co-products and by-products from copper mining

A total of 18 byproducts and coproducts of copper mining have been identified in [1]. For 6 elements, copper mining ensures over 50% of global production, and for 3, even more than 80%.



[1] https://www.oakdenehollins.com/reports/2014/1/15/study-of-by-products-of-copper-lead-zinc-nickel-executive-summary?rq=by%20products (2014 – checked October 2018)

[2] https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/73225762_E_V_Verhoef (author page – checked October 2018)

[3] https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk2/1988/8808/880811.PDF (not dated – checked October 2018)

How much and how many metals in mobile phones?

A mobile phone is typically composed of about 40% of plastic, 32% of non-ferrous metal, 20% of glass and ceramics, 3% of ferrous metal and 5% other [1]. Metals referred to in ref [1] are iron, copper (16 g), silver (0.35 g), gold (0.034 g), platinum and palladium.

Ref [2] mentions additionally the use of aluminium, magnesium, tin, cobalt, lead, nickel, cadmium and nickel. The document provides some guidance on best practices for the end-of-life treatment of mobile phones.

Ref [3] refers to total 60 elements being used in mobile phones, mentioning from the metals family (in addition to above metals) tantalum, neodynium and indium. It gives good information about the recycling value-chain and its challenges.

The above three paragraphs list a total of 16 metals used in mobile phones. Based on the total use of 60 elements, and the observation that only 20-30 of the world’s 118 elements are non-metallic, the number of metallic elements used in mobile phones could be as high as 30-40. 

The video “Ground Rules: Mining Right for a Sustainable Future” [4] mentions at minute 6 the number of 42 different metals used in a phone.

Update May 2020:

Ref [6] dissects a modern 5G phone giving a good indication where copper is used in a mobile phone, for wiring, heat sinks and heat transfer foils.


[1] http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-COP.11-SIDE.01A-Photoexhibition.English.pdf (not dated – checked October 2018)

[2] http://www.basel.int/Implementation/TechnicalAssistance/Partnerships/MPPI/Overview/tabid/3268/Default.aspx (2012 – checked October 2018)

[3] https://www.chemistryworld.com/features/smartphone-recycling/2500497.article (2017 – checked October 2018)

[4] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWt36I8JgVQ (2011 – checked January 2020)

[5] Product environmental report – iPhone Pro 11 (2019 – checked January 2020)

[6] https://youtu.be/TLdzV7gw0fA (2020 – checked May 2020)